FlyingLinux started in October 1999 in the Telecommunication Systems Lab at Teleinformatics KTH (The Creature) with the objetive of studying the possibilty of using MobileIPv4 and standard DHCP wireless access for student labs. The result of that work was the FlyingLinux environment available for one hundred students and teachers during 12 weeks.
The first Flying Linux infrastructure used Bambi as the core linux distribution. Bambi-6.1 included native support for WaveLAN/IEEE 802.11 PCMCIA cards, AFS and kerberos IV.
As one of the results of the project course The FlyingLinux.NET developing team kept working in a new Linux Distribution now called FlyingLinux.NET – The Wireless Distribution – oriented to security in wireless environments and mobility.
FlyingLinux is the first linux distribution oriented to mobility services. We have taken care of the security issues including Kerberos support and OpenSSH. FlyingLinux is part of the Open Source movement. We have included software that have been developed at KTH under the GPL licence.
->> FlyingLinux includes
- Kerberos IV
- Heimdal (kerberos V)
- Arla (an-AFS clone)
- MobileIP for IPv4
- WaveLAN/IEEE 802.11 GPL driver
- Wireless Extensions
- AODV ad-hoc networking
->> Where is FlyingLinux?
FlyingLinux environment has been developed thanks to the support of the new IT University – KTH.
->> FlyingLinux environment runs thanks to:
- charon: a one gigabit router that provides AAA services,
- pluto: the DHCP and radius server that provides MAC filterning in the Access Points,
- ekoxe: the LPRng printer server,
- ithaca: the MobileIP home agent. Uses Dynamics HA 0.7 CVS
- polka: the Samba server, that allows windows users to access the AFS server.
- orwell: the monitoring system.
->> Future Work
Currently, we are working in including MobileIPv6, Kerberos V, in the integration with Windows and extend the network to wireless systems.
Ubuntu is an operating system for computers. It is published by Canonical and is based on the software provided by the project “Debian / GNU Linux.” Also, Canonical offers commercial support to corporate customers and uses the free and versatile documentation and support of the community in the form of forums, mailing lists, and wikis.
The term Ubuntu
The word Ubuntu comes from an African language and means “humanity towards others.” It is “the belief in something universal that connects all mankind.” This concept is the foundation for collaboration in the Ubuntu community. We want or need to work together efficiently.
Desmond Tutu describes Ubuntu as follows:
“Ubuntu is very difficult to render into a Western language. It speaks of the very essence of being human. When we want to give high praise to someone we say, ‘Yu, u nobunto’; ‘Hey so-and-so has ubuntu.’ Then you are generous, you are hospitable, you are friendly and caring and compassionate. You share what you have. It is to say, ‘My humanity is inextricably bound up in yours.’ We belong in a bundle of life.” – Desmond Tutu, No Future Without Forgiveness.
The Ubuntu name was chosen for a Linux distribution because we believe that it meets the basic ideas of sharing and cooperating perfectly, which are so important for the open source movement. In the world of free software, we work together voluntarily to create software that benefits everyone. We improve the works of others we have received freely and share our extensions on the same basis with others.
The Ubuntu Behavioral Rules
Every co-operation needs behavioral rules. The Ubuntu behavior rules should ensure a productive and happy relationship.
Our work on Ubuntu is supported by an understanding of the freedom of software, which we hope will spread and bring the benefits of software application to all parts of the world.
Free and open source software
Ubuntu is a collaborative project designed to create an operating system and a full range of application programs, using free and open source software. The core of the understanding of freedom of software at Ubuntu are these central beliefs:
- Any user of a computer should be able to use, copy, distribute, or understand a program for any purpose, understand, modify and improve without paying royalties.
- Every user of a computer should have the possibility to use his programs in a language of his choice.
- Every user of a computer should have all the options to use their programs, even in the case of a disability.
- Our beliefs are incorporated into the programs we have written and incorporated into our distribution. Thus, the license terms of the programs we distribute are measured against these beliefs using the Ubuntu Software License Guidelines.
When you install Ubuntu, almost all programs already meet these requirements, and we work to make sure that any program you need is available under license terms that grant you these freedoms. Currently, there are specific exceptions for some drivers that are only available in binary form without the Ubuntu installed on some machines. We have put them in the restricted area of our system, where they can be easily removed if you do not need them.
We do not charge anything for Ubuntu and it stays the same. Above all, “free software” means the freedom of those who use or further develop it. These freedoms allow the Ubuntu community to grow and share their common experience and knowledge to improve Ubuntu and adapt it for use in new countries and industries.
The most important freedoms of free software are described as:
- The freedom to use the program for any purpose.
- The freedom to understand how the program works and how to adapt it to its needs.
- The freedom to spread copies so that you can help your neighbor.
- The freedom to improve the program and make the improvements available to the public so that the whole community can benefit from it.
- The social movement for free software has been around for more than two decades. This movement has produced millions of code lines, documentation and a dynamic community, to which Ubuntu is proudly adding. More about this is available at gnu.org.
Open Source Software
Open source software is a term that was coined in 1998 to eliminate the ambiguity of the English word free. The Open Source Initiative describes open source software. Open source software is constantly growing success and broad perception.
Ubuntu is a popular source of software. While some free and source-based software has different objectives, we consider free and open source software as neither mutually exclusive nor incompatible. Ubuntu has a lot of members who are either part of the “free software” bandwagon or the “open source software”, and many who identify with both.
Hello and welcome to the world of Linux! This page is intended for Ubuntu first-time users. This section explains how to test and install Ubuntu.
Do not worry – although Linux works differently than Windows, Linux is not harder to use. However, you have to learn a few new things, because Linux is not Windows.
Linux, Ubuntu, and Distributions?
What is that? In the world of Linux, there are a number of terms that you should use to understand what Linux and free software are all about. We will have posts about What is Linux and What is Ubuntu that will provide an overview of these terms.
Ubuntu, Kubuntu and Many Others
All of these variants are the same, but different user interfaces are used. In Ubuntu it was standard GNOME 2 up to version 10.10, and in the future the specially developed Unity will be used. Kubuntu uses the KDE software compilation, Xubuntu Xfce, Lubuntu LXDE, Ubuntu GNOME the GNOME shell, etc.
In addition, different programs are partly installed. But the technology that hides behind the user interfaces is always the same, but it just looks a bit different. There are also special versions like Edubuntu for school application or a version for a server.
Why not distribute everything on multiple DVDs
This step should be avoided. Users typically need only one user interface (desktop environment), while server users do not have a graphical interface. Ubuntu is distributed worldwide. In Europe, we live on a high standard. The download of large files is cheap with the usual flat rate internet access, and almost every computer is equipped with a DVD drive. But in other parts of the world, it looks different: modern computers are rare. And this also applies to fast and inexpensive Internet connections.
Can I use Ubuntu KDE programs?
Yes. As already mentioned, Ubuntu and the different variants are one and the same distribution. For example, Under GNOME to use a KDE program like Amarok, you simply install the program. If you want to install another desktop environment, so does not counter. When logging on, the user can select which desktop environment to launch when multiple desktop environments are installed. Of course, you can also use server services under Ubuntu or a server installation later equipped with a graphical interface.
How are the versions identified?
What is Precise or Trusty
A new version of Ubuntu appears every 6 months. This can be seen from the version number. So the versions are 6.06, 8.10, 12.04, 14.04 etc. The first digit stands for the year and the second for the month of the publication. Ubuntu 14.04 was released in April 2014, and Ubuntu 14.10 has been released in October 2014.
In addition to this numbering, developers identify the different versions with animal names. Mark Shuttleworth chooses an English animal name with an adjective beginning with the same letter. The initial letters have been selected since 6.06 “Dapper Drake” in alphabetical order. The version 12.04 has got the name “Precise Pangolin” and is the 16th version of Ubuntu.
What is LTS?
This abbreviation stands for “Long Term Support”. Every two years, a version is published which, unlike the other versions, is significantly longer (5 years) with updates (“updates”), among others. (Bug and security fixes)
What is 64-bit?
Modern processors offer, among other things, “Broader” ways for internal data transmission. In the Linux world, amd64 or x86_64 is often used as an abbreviation – as opposed to i386 or x86 for 32-bit. If you have a 64-bit capable processor, you should generally make use of the various advantages.
What is the right thing for me?
Everyone has to decide for himself. Roughly said: Ubuntu as well as Kubuntu are comparable with other well-known operating systems particularly suitable, as regards the extent and the work comfort. Xubuntu and Lubuntu require a little less main memory, disk space, and processor capacity, making them especially suitable for low-performance computers. The live or desktop CDs can be put into any desktop environment.